About Gordon W. Prange Collection
The most comprehensive print media archive of occupied Japan, the Gordon W. Prange Collection covers a period of Japan's reconstruction from the end of imperial Japan to the beginning of the Cold War era. During the period of 4 years immediately after World War II from September 1945 through November 1949, all publications were censored in Japan. Pre-publication materials in manuscript, galley proof, or print form were submitted by publishers for review to the Civil Censorship Detachment (CCD) Press, Pictorial and Broadcasting Division, a unit overseen by the Office of the Chief of Counter-Intelligence in General Headquarters (GHQ) of the United States Army Forces, Pacific, under General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP). The CCD censored civilian communications including correspondence, telecommunication, press, radio broadcasting and films. Thus collected materials were brought out from Japan to the United States in 1950 by G. W. Prange (1910-1980), chief of historical staff who served for the U.S. Army from 1946 to 1951 and history professor of the University of Maryland where they are curated. Allied occupation of Japan lasted for 6 years and 8 months from September 2, 1945 to April 28, 1952.
- Original materials held at: Prange Collection, Hornbake Library, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.
- Microform copies of periodicals (magazines and newspapers) held at: the East Asian Collection, McKeldin Library of the University of Maryland, the National Diet Library (NDL), the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kumamoto Gakuen University, Waseda University, UCLA, Harvard University, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania (newspapers only) and Yale University.
- Digital copies of 20,000 items including 8,000 children’s books, 6,000 magazines and 6,000 books viewable onsite at: the University of Maryland and NDL.
The processing began in 1962, the collection was named after Dr. Prange in 1978, and through collaboration with NDL cataloging and microfilming began in 1992. The collection contains:
- 71,000 titles of books and pamphlets (digitization began in 2005 and 8,000 children’s books digitization completed; viewable onsite at the University of Maryland and NDL; 1,000 titles received some forms of censorship)
- 18,000 titles of newspapers (microfilming began in 1992 and completed in 1999)
- 13,800 titles of magazines (microfilmed in 1992-2001)
- 640 maps
- 285 political posters (90) and wall newspapers (a selection microfilmed and some digitized viewable onsite at the University of Maryland)
- 10,000 news photographs (submitted in 1948-49 by news agencies Kyodo Tsushin共同通信, Jiji Tsushin 時事通信 and Sun サン)
- 140 ephemera items (fliers, minutes and leaflets; digitized and viewable onsite at Prange Collection and NDL) and
- 600,000-page censorship documents indicating deletion, changes or suppression of publications which accompany the censored items.
[Censored against violation of the Code for Japanese Press by the Civil Censorship Detachment (CCD) under the SCAP Press, Publication and Broadcast Division (PPB) located at General Headquarters, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ/SCAP) 連合国最高司令官総司令部 in Tokyo between October 1945 and November 1949.]
“Code for Japanese Press” (21 Sept 1945)
- News must adhere strictly to the truth.
- Nothing should be printed which might, directly or indirectly disturb the public tranquility.
- There shall be no false or destructive criticism of the Allied Powers.
- There shall be no destructive criticism of the Allied Occupation and nothing which might invite mistrust or resentment of those troops.
- There shall be no mention or discussion of Allied troops movement unless such movements have been officially released.
- News stories must be factually written and completely devoid of editorial opinion.
- News stories shall not be colored to conform with any propaganda line.
- Minor details of a news story must not be over-emphasized to stress or develop any propaganda line.
- No news story shall be distorted by the omission of pertinent facts or details.
- In the make-up of the newspaper no news story shall be given undue prominence for the purpose of establishing or developing any propaganda line.