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Ethnomusicology Research Guide

Photo Gallery

Mantle Hood, Robert Garfias, Max Harrell recording

Mantle Hood and the World Musical Instrument Collection

UCLA Music and Dance of Ghana

Mantle Hood in Ghana, Filming Atumpan

UCLA Music and Dance of Ghana

How to Cite

Ask your professor if he or she has a specific style they want you to use. or...

Evaluating What You Read

  • Who is the author? What is the author's occupation, position, title, education, experience, etc.? Is the author qualified (or not) to write on the subject?
  • What is the purpose of writing the article or doing the research?
  • To what audience is the author writing? Is it intended for the general public, scholars, policy makers, teachers, professionals, practitioners, etc.? Is this reflected in the author's style of writing or presentation? How so?
  • Does the author have a bias or make assumptions upon which the rationale of the publication or the research rests?
  • What method of obtaining data or conducting research was employed by the author? Is the article (or book) based on personal opinion or experience, field work, interviews, library research, questionnaires, laboratory experiments, case studies, etc.?
  • At what conclusion does the author arrive?
  • Does the author satisfactorily justify the conclusions from the research or experience? Why or why not?
  • How does this study compare with similar studies? Is it in tune with or in opposition to conventional wisdom, established scholarship, professional practice, government policy, etc.? Are there specific studies, writings, schools of thought, philosophies, etc., with which this author agrees or disagrees?
  • Are there significant attachments or appendices such as bibliographies, discographies, audiovisual recordings, photos, charts, maps, documents, etc.? If not, should there be?

"30 second rule"

Fact-checking Websites

  • Pay attention to the domain and URL.  Established news organizations usually own their domains.  For example, is a legitimate news source, but is not.
  • Read the "About Us" section.  Most sites will have information about the news outlet, the company that runs it, members of leadership, and the mission and ethics statement behind an organization.
  • Look at the quotes in a story.  Or rather, look at the lack of quotes. Most publications have multiple sources in each story who are professionals and have expertise in the fields they talk about. If it's a serious or controversial issue, there are more likely to be quotes — and lots of them. Look for professors or other academics who can speak to the research they've done. And if they are talking about research, look up those studies.
  • Look at who said them.  Then, see who said the quotes, and what they said. Are they a reputable source with a title that you can verify through a quick Google search?
  • Reverse image search.  A picture should be accurate in illustrating what the story is about. This often doesn't happen. If people who write these fake news stories don't even leave their homes or interview anyone for the stories, it's unlikely they take their own pictures.

For more information, check out NPR's "Fake Or Real? How To Self-Check The News And Get The Facts," "False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and/or Satirical “News” Sources" by Melissa Zimdars, assistant professor of communication and media at Merrimack College and "Fake News: A Library Resource Round-Up" by the American Library Association (ALA) Public Programs Office


How To Spot Fake News - International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)

CRAAP (currency, relevance, authority, accuracy and purpose)


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