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How to Cite: During and After

Two techniques of citing and documenting sources that are usually required in academic writing are:

  1. Providing a list of citations at the end of the paper
  2. Citing within the text of the paper

These two techniques are used together.

Cite At the End

Provide a list of the complete citations for your sources at the end of your paper. Depending on the style you're using, these lists are sometimes called "Works Cited," "References," "Bibliography," or "Works Consulted" to name a few. And of course, formats for citations vary from style to style.

Cite as You Write

Cite within the text of your paper to help the reader quickly distinguish between your thoughts and words and thoughts of someone else. In-text citations also guide readers to the appropriate complete citation in the list at the end of your paper. Methods of citing sources within your text include using footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical citations. Formats for these documentation techniques vary from style to style.

Need more? See Resources for UCLA Students.

Plagiarism Isn't Just About Words

Did you know that according to the UCLA Dean of Students, using someone else's data in a computer exercise without authorization is considered plagiarism? It's true. Using someone's statistical data, computer code, or any other type of intellectual property without attributing the source is considered plagiarism. See the Office of the Dean of Students web site for more.

("UCLA Student Conduct Code")