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Evaluate Information Sources Using ABCD: Author, Bias, Content & Date


  • Who is the author?  

  • Are they an expert in the field? An eyewitness? Is it a primary or secondary source?

  • Who are the publishers/researchers/fundraisers? Look for an “About Us” tab or similar.

  • Beware of anonymous authors or use of vague phrases like, “sources say”


  • Does the source cover multiple perspectives on an issue in a neutral manner?  

  • OR does it seem like the author is trying to sell you something or convince you of something?


  • Is the material relevant to your topic? Can you easily explain it to someone else?

  • Is the information supported by evidence? Was it evaluated or peer reviewed before publication? 

  • Are there any spelling or grammatical mistakes?


  • Is the information still current or has the information in your source become outdated? 

  • For websites, check for broken links as an indicator if the page has not been maintained over time.