Skip to Main Content

Anti-Racism and Racial Justice Resources

A collection of anti-racism and racial justice resources.

Terms & Definitions

Racism is prejudice plus power; anyone of any race can have/exhibit racial prejudice, but in North America, white people have the institutional power, therefore Racism is a systematized discrimination or antagonism directed against people of color based on the belief that whiteness is superior. It is insidious, systemic, devastating, and integral to understanding both the history of the United States and the everyday experiences of those of us living in this country.

Note: A common, incorrect definition of racism is the colloquial definition: “racism is prejudice against someone based on their skin color or ethnicity and can be committed by anyone.” This is NOT an accurate definition nor the one used in most anti-racist circles. It highlights individuals' thinking and actions but ignores embedded institutional and cultural systems.

Implicit Bias

Thoughts and feelings are “implicit” if we are unaware of them or mistaken about their nature. We have a bias when, rather than being neutral, we have a preference for (or aversion to) a person or group of people. Thus, we use the term “implicit bias” to describe when we have attitudes towards people or associate stereotypes with them without our conscious knowledge. A fairly commonplace example of this is seen in studies that show that white people will frequently associate criminality with black people without even realizing they’re doing it.


Racial Microaggressions are commonplace verbal or behavioral indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults in relation to race. They are structurally based and invoke oppressive systems of racial hierarchy. Racial Microinvalidations, Microinsults, Microassaults are specific types of microaggressions.

Note: The prefix “micro” is used because these are invocations of racial hierarchy at the individual level (person to person), where as the "macro" level refers to aggressions committed by structures as a whole (e.g. an organizational policy). "Micro" in no way minimalizes or otherwise evaluates the impact or seriousness of the aggressions.

Tokenism and Stereotypes

Tokenism is presence without meaningful participation. For example, a superficial invitation for participation without ongoing dialogue and support, handpicked representatives who are expected to speak for the whole (socially oppressed) group (e.g. ‘tell us how women experience this issue’). Tokenism is often used as a band-aid solution to help the group improve its image (e.g. ‘we’re not racist, look there’s a person of color on the panel.’). (from Sustainable Campuses)

Similarly, this attitude of "one is enough/they're all the same" contributes to the mindset that one person of color or one Native person can stand in for all people of color and Native people respectively. Not only is it problematic and illogical to assume that one individual's perspective and experiences can be generalized to millions of other people, it also promotes to the idea that a friendship, relationship, or just exposure to one or a few people of color or Native people negates racist thoughts, ideas, or behavior toward others (i.e. "I'm not a racist, my boyfriend is black" or "My costume isn't racist--my best friend is First Nation and she thinks it's hilarious").

Color Blindness and Erasure

Colorblindness is the racial ideology that posits the best way to end discrimination is by treating individuals as equally as possible, without regard to race, culture, or ethnicity. This not only amounts to a dismissal of the lived experiences of people of color, but also suggests that racism does not exist so long as one ignores it.

I don't see color. I just see people.

I don't care if you're black, white, green, or purple-polka-dotted!


On the surface, colorblindness seems like a good thing — actually living up to Dr. King's  ideal of judging people on the content of their character rather than the color of their skin. However, colorblindness alone is not sufficient to combat racism or heal racial wounds on a national or personal level. It is only a half-measure that, in the end, operates as a form of racism because by ignoring the lived experiences of people of color, one also ignores the systemic injustices that is a direct cause of the experience. (from


Violence targeted by race that can be individual or communal in nature.. Actions can include beatings, lynching, shooting, arson and riots.

Racial Violence in the U.S. Since 1660
List of some of the incidences of racial violence in the U.S including the Wilmington Race Riot, Tulsa Massacre, Hunter’s Point Uprising and Charleston Church Massacre..

How Racial Violence Is Provoked and Channeled
This paper seeks to explain the extraordinary violence of modern-day organized white supremacism in the United States. We begin on a conceptual level by distinguishing the racial ideologies and violence associated with modern racist movements from the racism and racial violence expressed in daily life in highly racialized and racially unequal societies. We then move to an empirical level by using our interviews with a broad set of former racist activists to explore how violence is caused by—and also can cause—the vicious racist ideologies of modern white supremacism.

Know their Names: Black People Killed by the Police in the U.S.
Small illustrated sampling of Blacks killed by the police in the U.S. from 2014-2020.

Visualizing Violence
U.S. history is often told as a story of different eras marked by moments of perceived progress towards racial justice.  However, at each of these moments, racism did not end,  it adapted. And throughout history, U.S. law has always protected and perpetuated the adaptation of racism prevailing at the time.

White Privilege

In the U.S., white privilege is the lived experience of greater social/political access, representation and entitlement, and material and economic security that people considered white have as a result of white supremacy. It's important to note that while many white people are oppressed on the basis of class, gender, sexual orientation, ability, religion, culture, ethnicity, etc, it is still true that ALL white people benefit from white privilege in various ways.

White Fragility

White fragility is a state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress becomes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves. These moves include the outward display of emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and behaviors such as tears, argumentation, silence, and leaving the stress-inducing situation. These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium. 

White people in North America live in a social environment that protects and insulates them from race-based stress. This insulated environment of racial protection builds white expectations for racial comfort while at the same time lowering the ability to tolerate racial stress, leading to...White Fragility. (from DiAngelo, White Fragility)

Reverse Racism

Reverse racism is a term created and used by white people to deny white privilege. Those in denial use the term "reverse racism" to refer to hostile behavior by people of color toward whites and to affirmative action policies which allegedly give ‘preferential treatment’ to people of color over whites. However, while people of color can certainly exhibit prejudice against white people, in North America that prejudice is not supported by a system of institutional power. And despite some public opinion to the contrary, studies show the largest group to benefit from affirmative action policies is white women


Strategies, theories, actions, and practices that challenge and counter racism, inequalities, prejudices, and discrimination based on race.

  • Are You Anti-Racist?
    Five questions to determine if you are anti-racist.
  • Anti-Racist Student Self-Questionnaire
    Created by Anna Stamborski (M.Div candidate) with support from Jeremy Lambson, Maci Sepp, Nikki Zimmerman, Alexandra Aligarbes, Nii Addo Abrahams, Carson Washington, and Hanna Reichel. Resources to help you learn about anti-racism work, dismantle the unconscious biases that exist within yourself, and take action to create a more just society
  • Welcome To The Anti-Racism Movement — Here’s What You’ve Missed
    A handy list of things that you’re going to need to catch up on. Buck up, because it won’t be easy.
  • Anti-Racism for Beginners
    Resources to help you learn about anti-racism work, dismantle the unconscious biases that exist within yourself, and take action to create a more just society. Document managed by Tiffany Bowden, PhD in Diversity and Inclusion.
  • Justice in June
    Choose how much time you have each day to become more informed as step one to becoming an active ally to the black community. On this document are links to the learning resources and a schedule of what to do each day. Click on the following to jump directly to that info: 10 minutes/day, 25 minutes/day, 45 minutes/day.
  • Resources and Tools Regarding Racism and Anti/Blackness
    Created by Tatum Dorrell, Matt Herndon, and Jourdan Dorrell. Resources to help you learn about anti-racism work, dismantle the unconscious biases that exist within yourself, and take action to create a more just society.
  • Dismantling Racism Works Workbook
    A web-based version of a workbook designed originally to support the Dismantling Racism workshop offered by Dismantling Racism Works, a training collaborative that is not offering workshops or consulting support at this time. The workshop was one step in a longer process developed initially by Kenneth Jones and Tema Okun.
  • Racial Equity Tools
    Tools, research, tips, curricula, and ideas for people who want to increase their own understanding and to help those working toward justice at every level – in systems, organizations, communities, and the culture at large.
  • Talking About Race
    A guide from the National Museum of African American History and Culture.
    A resource hub about ending violence that includes selected articles, audio-visual resources, curricula, and more.
  • #BlackLivesMatter Resources compiled by Tia C. Madkins
    Resources to help you learn about anti-racism work, dismantle the unconscious biases that exist within yourself, and take action to create a more just society
  • Scaffolded Anti-Racist Resources
    Working document for scaffolding anti-racism resources. The goal is to facilitate growth for white folks to become allies, and eventually accomplices for anti-racist work. These resources have been ordered in an attempt to make them more accessible. We will continue to add resources.
  • Resources for Accountability and Action for Black Lives (updated daily)
    Seeking justice means putting in the work. Say their names, share their stories, but first and foremost, take action. Resources and action items compiled by Carlisa Johnson.