International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF)
IIIF is a framework for image delivery developed by a community of leading research libraries and image repositories. The goals are to provide access to an unprecedented level of uniform and rich access to image-based resources hosted around the world, define a set of common application programming interfaces supporting interoperability between image repositories, develop, cultivate and document shared technologies, such as image servers and web clients, for providing viewing, comparing, manipulating, and annotating images.
The two core APIs for the Framework are:
IIIF Consortium. (2021). Appleby, Michael, Crane, Tom, Sanderson, Robert, Stroop, Jon, and Warner, Simeon. This document describes an image delivery API specification for a web service that returns an image in response to a standard HTTP or HTTPS request. The URI can specify the region, size, rotation, quality characteristics and format of the requested image as well as be enabled to request basic technical information about the image to support client applications.
IIIF Consortium. (2021). Appleby, Michael, Crane, Tom, Sanderson, Robert, Stroop, Jon, and Warner, Simeon. The IIIF Presentation API provides information necessary to human users to allow a rich, online viewing environment for compound digital objects. It enables the display of digitized images, video, audio, and other content types associated with a particular physical or born-digital object, allows navigation between multiple views or time extents of the object, either sequentially or hierarchically, displays descriptive information about the object, view or navigation structure, and provides a shared environment in which publishers and users can annotate the object and its content with additional information.
The Cookbook provides resource types and properties of the Presentation specification and for rendering by viewers and other software clients. Examples are provided to encourage publishers to adopt common patterns in modeling classes of complex objects, enable client software developers to support these patterns, for consistency of user experience, and demonstrate the applicability of IIIF to a broad range of use cases.
Additional APIs for the Framework are:
IIIF Consort ium. (2021). Appleby, Michael, Crane, Tom, Sanderson, Robert, Stroop, Jon, and Warner, Simeon.The Authentication specification describes a set of workflows for guiding the user through an existing access control system. It provides a link to a user interface for logging in, and services that provide credentials, modeled after elements of the OAuth2 workflow acting as a bridge to the access control system in use on the server, without the client requiring knowledge of that system.
IIIF Consort ium. (2021). Appleby, Michael, Crane, Tom, Sanderson, Robert, Stroop, Jon, and Warner, Simeon. The Content Search specification lays out the interoperability mechanism for performing searches among varied content types from different sources. The scope of the specification is searching annotation content within a single IIIF resource, such as a Manifest, Range or Collection.
Linked Art is a data model which provides an application profile used to describe cultural heritage resources, with a focus on artworks and museum-oriented activities. Based on real world data and use cases, it defines common patterns and terms used in its conceptual model, ontologies, and vocabulary. Linked Art follows existing standards and best practices including CIDOC-CRM, Getty Vocabularies, and JSON-LD 1.1 as the core serialization format.
Ontologies are formalized vocabularies of terms, often covering a specific domain. They specify the definitions of terms by describing their relationships with other terms in the ontology. OWL 2 is the Web Ontology Language designed to facilitate ontology development and sharing via the Web. It provides classes, properties, individuals, and data values that are stored as Semantic Web documents. As an RDF vocabulary, OWL can be used in combination with RDF schema.
VOWL: Visual Notation for OWL Ontologies
Negru,Stefan, Lohmann, Seffan, and Haag, Florian. (2014, April 7). Specification of Version 2.0. VOWL defines a visual language for user-oriented representation of ontologies. The language provides graphical depictions for elements of OWL that are combined to a force-directed graph layout visualizing the ontology. It focuses on the visualization of the classes, properties and datatypes, sometimes called TBox, while it also includes recommendations on how to depict individuals and data values, the ABox. Familiarity with OWL and other Semantic Web technologies is required to understand this specification.
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for representing information in the Web of Data. It comprises a suite of standards and specifications whose documentation is listed below.
RDF 1.1 Serializations
There are a number of RDF serialization formats for implementing RDF. The first format was XML/RDF. Subsequent serialization formats have been developed and may be more suited to particular environments.
SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System)
SKOS is a W3C data model defined as an OWL Full ontology for use with knowledge organization systems including thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading systems, and taxonomies. Many Semanatic Web vocabularies incorporate the SKOS model. The Library of Congress Subject Headings and the Getty Vocabularies are an examples of vocabularies published as SKOS vocabularies.