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Citing Sources

Citation: A Very Brief Introduction

Start by watching this video...

When Should You Cite?

  • When you use the author’s exact words 
  • When you summarize someone else’s words 
  • When you read someone else's words and write it in your own words 
  • Anything which is not your OWN original thought 
  • Facts that are not common knowledge
  • When in doubt, CITE!

Why is Citing Important?

  • To add credibility and support for your ideas!
  • To ensure the accuracy of scientific and scholarly knowledge.
  • To protect intellectual property rights.

References

  • Caravello, P. Avoiding plagiarism: Strategies & resources. Presentation.
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (2001). 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: APA, p. 348.

How Can I Cite?

What? Using the Author’s exact words

How? Use “quotation marks” to mark someone else’s words

Why?

  • To support or add credibility to your arguments.
  • When the original is difficult to rephrase.
  • When original wording is great!

Source: Caravello, P. Avoiding plagiarism: Strategies & resources. Presentation.

What? Condensed/distilled version of the author’s words or ideas

Why? To include only main points of the original text

Tip: A summary is shorter than a paraphrase and covers main points only.

Source: Caravello, P. Avoiding plagiarism: Strategies & resources. Presentation.

What?

  • Restating, in your own words, the author’s words or ideas

Why?

  • To simplify or clarify the original text
  • To demonstrate comprehension of original source

Paraphrasing Tips

  • Rewrite it using your own words
  • Rewrite it using your own sentence structure
  • Quote distinctive words or phrases taken from the original source
  • Accurately represent the author
  • Always cite the source of your information

Source: Caravello, P. Avoiding plagiarism: Strategies & resources. Presentation.

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